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Special Characters

Alphabetic Arrangement of Character Codes

A much simpler chart which will print on one sheet, together with directions for finding the little pictures in decorative fonts may be found on the Symbol Fonts page.

To put a character into a document or email, copy and paste the actual character, or hold the Alt key while you key in the given number. Directions

If it doesn't work

Symbols marked KBD are already on your keyboard—and the ones marked with **** are ones for which I couldn't find the number.embarrassed

Writing Complicated Equations or Formulae

In html, type the code exactly as shown.

If you'd prefer to use the entity name, type it between a “&” and a “;
Entity names are easier to remember, but they can't be trusted to work in every situation.

If the table is blank, this much older version should work for you.

  HTML Code Character Entity Keyboard
A, capital letter with acute Á       Á Aacute 0193
A, capital letter with circumflex         Acirc 0194
A, capital letter with diaeresis Ä       Ä Auml 0196
A, capital letter with grave À       À Agrave 0192
A, capital letter with ring above Å       Å Aring 0197
A, capital letter with tilde à       à Atilde 0195
a small letter with acute á       á aacute 0225
a, small letter with circumflex â       â acirc 0226
a, small letter with diaeresis ä       ä auml 0228
a, small letter with grave à       à agrave 0224
a, small letter with ring above å       å aring 0229
a, small letter with tilde ã       ã atilde 0227
acute accent ´       ´ acute 0180
AE, capital letter or ligature AE Æ       Æ AElig 0198
ae, small letter or ligature ae æ       æ aelig 0230
ampersand &       & amp KBD
angle quotation mark, single left-pointing ‹       ‹ lsaquo KBD
angle quotation mark, single right-pointing ›       › rsaquo KBD
apostrophe ’       ’ rsquo 0146
broken vertical bar ¦       ¦ brvbar 0166
C, capital letter with cedilla Ç       Ç Ccedil 0199
c, small letter with cedilla ç       ç ccedil 0231
capital ligature OE Œ       Œ OElig 0140
cedilla ¸       ¸ cedil 0184
cent sign ¢       ¢ cent 0162
circumflex accent ˆ       ˆ circ KBD
copyright sign ©       © copy 0169
cubed sign or superscript three ³       ³ sup3 0179
currency sign ¤       ¤ curren 0164
dagger †       † dagger 0134
decimal point ·       · middot 0183
degree sign °       ° deg 0176
diaeresis ¨       ¨ uml 0168
division sign ÷       ÷ divide 0247
double dagger ‡       ‡ Dagger 0134
E, capital letter with acute É       É Eacute 0201
E, capital letter with circumflex Ê       Ê Ecirc 0202
E, capital letter with diaeresis Ë       Ë Euml 0203
E, capital letter with grave È       È Egrave 0200
e, small letter with acute é       é eacute 0233
e, small letter with circumflex ê       ê ecirc 0234
e, small letter with diaeresis ë       ë euml 0235
e, small letter with grave è       è egrave 0232
em dash —       — mdash 0151
em space           emsp ****
en dash –       – ndash 0150
en space           ensp ****
ETH, capital letter Ð       Ð ETH 0208
eth, small letter ð       ð eth 0240
euro sign €       € euro 0128
exclamation mark inverted ¡       ¡ iexcl 0161
feminine ordinal indicator ª       ª ordf 0170
guillemet left pointing «       « laquo 0171
guillemet right »       » raquo 0187
greater-than sign >       > gt KBD
half -vulgar fraction one half ½       ½ frac12 0189
I, capital letter with acute Í       Í Iacute 0205
I, capital letter with circumflex Î       Î Icirc 0206
I, capital letter with diaeresis Ï       Ï Iuml 0207
I, capital letter with grave Ì       Ì Igrave 0204
i, small letter with acute í       í iacute 0237
i, small letter with circumflex î       î icirc 0238
i, small letter with diaeresis ï       ï iuml 0239
i, small letter with grave ì       ì igrave 0236
inverted exclamation mark ¡       ¡ iexcl 0161
inverted question mark ¿       ¿ iquest 0191
left-pointing double angle quotation mark «       « laquo 0171
left-to-right mark ‎       ‎ lrm ****
less-than sign &#60;       < lt KBD
macron or overline or overbar &#175;       ¯ macr 0175
masculine ordinal indicator &#186;       º ordm 0186
micro sign &#181;       µ micro 0181
middle dot or Georgian comma &#183;       · middot 0183
multiplication sign &#215;       × times 0215
N, capital letter with tilde &#209;       Ñ Ntilde 0209
n, small letter with tilde &#241;       ñ ntilde 0241
non-breaking space &#160;         nbsp ****
not sign or discretionary hyphen &#172;       ¬ not 0172
O, capital letter with acute &#211;       Ó Oacute 0211
O, capital letter with circumflex &#212;       Ô Ocirc 0212
O, capital letter with diaeresis &#214;       Ö Ouml 0214
O, capital letter with grave &#210;       Ò Ograve 0210
O, capital letter with stroke or slash &#216;       Ø Oslash 0216
O, capital letter with tilde &#213;       Õ Otilde 0213
OE, capital ligature &#338;       Œ OElig 0140
o, small letter with acute &#243;       ó oacute 0243
o, small letter with circumflex &#244;       ô ocirc 0244
o, small letter with diaeresis &#246;       ö ouml 0246
o, small letter with grave &#242;       ò ograve 0242
o, small letter with stroke or slash &#248;       ø oslash 0248
o, small letter with tilde &#245;       õ otilde 0245
oe, small ligature &#339;       œ oelig 0156
overline or overbar or macron &#175;       ¯ macr 0175
paragraph sign or pilcrow sign &#182;       ¶ para 0182
per mille sign &#8240;       ‰ permil 0137
piping symbol &#166;       ¦ brvbar 0166
plus-or-minus sign &#177;       ± plusmn 0177
point (middle dot) &#183;       · middot 0183
pound sign &#163;       £ pound 0163
quarter, vulgar fraction one quarter &#188;       ¼ frac14 0188
question mark inverted &#191;       ¿ iquest 0191
quotation mark &#34;       " quot KBD
quotation mark, left double &#8220;       “ ldquo 0147
quotation mark, left single &#8216;       ‘ lsquo 0145
quotation mark, low-9 double &#8222;       „ bdquo ****
quotation mark, low-9 single &#8218;       ‚ sbquo KBD
quotation mark, right double &#8221;       ” rdquo 0148
quotation mark, right single &#8217;       ’ rsquo 0146
registered trade mark sign &#174;       ® reg 0174
right-pointing double angle quotation mark &#187;       » raquo 0187
right-to-left mark &#8207;       ‏ rlm ****
S, capital letter with caron &#352;       Š Scaron 0138
s, small letter sharp or ess-zed &#223;       ß szlig 0223
s, small letter with caron &#353;       š scaron 0154
section sign &#167;       § sect 0167
soft hyphen or discretionary hyphen &#173;       ­ shy 0173
space thin &#8201;         thinsp ****
space, non-breaking &#160;         nbsp ****
squared sign or superscript two &#178;       ² sup2 0178
superscript one or superscript digit one &#185;       ¹ sup1 ****
superscript three or cubed sign &#179;       ³ sup3 0179
superscript two or squared sign &#178;       ² sup2 0178
thin space &#8201;         thinsp ****
THORN, capital letter &#222;       Þ THORN 0222
thorn, small letter &#254;       þ thorn 0254
three quarters &#190;       ¾ frac34 0190
tilde, small &#732;       ˜ tilde 0152
trade mark &#8482;       ™ trade 0153
U, capital letter with acute &#218;       Ú Uacute 0218
U, capital letter with circumflex &#219;       Û Ucirc 0219
U, capital letter with diaeresis &#220;       Ü Uuml 0220
U, capital letter with grave &#217;       Ù Ugrave 0217
u, small letter with acute &#250;       ú uacute 0250
u, small letter with circumflex &#251;       û ucirc 0251
u, small letter with diaeresis &#252;       ü uuml 0252
u, small letter with grave &#249;       ù ugrave 0249
Y, capital letter with acute &#221;       Ý Yacute 0221
Y, capital letter with diaeresis &#376;       Ÿ Yuml 0152
y, small letter with acute &#253;       ý yacute 0221
y, small letter with diaeresis &#255;       ÿ yuml 152
yen sign or yuan sign &#165;       ¥ yen 0159
zero width joiner &#8205;       ‍ zwj ****
zero width non-joiner &#8204;       ‌ zwnj ****
Portions © International Organization for Standardization 1986:

Permission to copy in any form is granted for use with conforming SGML systems and applications as defined in ISO 8879, provided this notice is included in all copies.

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Keyboard Codes

Word processors generally have an "Insert Symbol" facility through which you can insert many characters not found on the keyboard, but many people prefer to use the keyboard. When writing email, there's usually no "Insert Symbol", so using the Alt numbers could be the only way.

To insert a character with the keyboard, first make sure that NumLock is turned on. Then hold down the Alt key while you tap in the numbers on the number pad. When you finish and release the Alt key, the character should appear.

If It Doesn't Work

Mayhap you have one of the new-fangled keyboards with an F Lock key. From my point of view, it's a confounded nuisance. Usually, it means that every time you boot up the normal operation of the function keys—F1 for help, F5 to refresh a window, F7 to check spelling, F11 for full screen and so on—has been disabled and the keys call all sorts of different operations.

To make all keys function normally, you only have to turn on the F Lock, which is just above NumLock. Sadly, on the next reboot you'll probably have to do it again—on some keyboards, your choice is not remembered.

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Writing Complicated Equations or Formulae

Inserting symbols by tapping in a number is fine in a text document, but of little help if you need to write some equation or formula as you would with a pen or chalk. To do that, your word processor almost certainly has an Equation Editor. Search menus under Insert > Object, or Create > Equation or similar—or type "equation" into the program's Help dialogue.

Characters that are on the Keyboard

When writing normal printable text, or when writing email, it's fine to use any and every character that's available on the keyboard, as well as those for which you have to go to special trouble.

In html, however, some characters have particular meanings—they tell the browser what to do—and to avoid confusion are reserved for use in code. The most common ones are &, < and >.

About Entities

Sometimes on a web page—usually one with user input—I'll see entity names appearing exactly as written in the code. For instance, instead of “Hurry up”, said John, I see &;ldquoHurry up&;rdquo, said John. I have no idea why this happens, but it does make me wary of using entities.

Another thing that can cause weird characters to appear on a web page is pasting text copied from a word processor. The codes used by word processors and those used in html are quite different from each other. It's a bit like hoping that a Japanese word that sounds the same as an English word will have the same meaning.

Questions or comments? I’d love to hear from you. My email address is here.

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